CIVIL RESISTANCE


CIVIC EDUCATION   . . .

Where I go for AGGREGATED news on Cambodia, plus...   . . .           On Dec 26-29, 1979 [by now, Cambodia under one full year of Vietnamese occupation], the musician Paul McCartney and Kurt Waldheim, the Secre [ ... ]


CIVIC EDUCATION


Has Science Discovered God?     Click to watch this FASCINATING, MIND-BLOGGING video with breathtaking images and you learn science in the process!   Read transcript             God in the Cosmos
Veritas Forum at Yale University  [ ... ]



 

Human Rights Watch | 12 January 2015

The 67-page report chronicles Hun Sen’s career from being a Khmer Rouge commander in the 1970s to his present role as prime minister and head of the ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CPP). The report details the violence, repression, and corruption that have characterized his rule under successive governments since 1985.

Read the Report

 

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My commentary on the 30 year rule of Hun Sen


Based on a response to media inquiry (well-known wire service) which I've since edited and expanded:


Thirty years ago, Vietnam gave birth to Hun Sen the Prime Minister. Thirty years later, the umbilical cord of Hun Sen and his CPP to Vietnam has not been severed. As a puppet of a historically aggressive, more powerful neighbor, whose annexation of Cambodia consistently over the years are well-documented but not uninteresting to non-Cambodians, Hun Sen has consistently appeased and catered to the whims of its political master Vietnam. The facts are indisputable.


However, these continuing national security concerns vis-a-vis Vietnam have been overshadowed by virulent charges of racism by foreigners of Cambodians. The unfortunate and potentially dangerous effect has been the silencing of any robust discussion. This in turn leaves the Cambodians frustrated that they can't even express freely what they daily experience in their own home--the flooding of illegal immigrants--while simultaneously are unfairly denounced with the ugly moniker of racism.


The consequences of this puppetry for Cambodia has been detrimental for the country's development and Cambodians' healing and well-being from the first day of occupation in January 1979 with the cordoning and plundering of Phnom Penh.


It is believed that Vietnam appointed Hun Sen when prior appointees have been less willing to implement the policy of the genocidal K-5 plan and the larger policy of "eating silkworm", that is, Vietnamization and outright annexation through the flooding of Vietnam's undesirables (de facto) and coercive territorial agreements (de jure). Hun Sen witnessed firsthand what happens should he deviate from the wishes of his brutal master: imprisonment of Pen Sovann (1st PM under occupation) in Hanoi, the murder of Chan Si (2nd PM) while in office.


Since then, the unrelenting destruction of Cambodia under the leadership of Vietnam using the hands of Hun Sen has included the handing over more and more of national security and intelligence via Metfone whose parent company is Viettel of the Vietnamese military, national airlines which effectively is Vietnamese, the agreement for Vietnam to fly over Cambodia airspace, the destruction of land and sea via egregious contractual terms and conditions with Vietnam, and most recently the Vietnamization of provinces along the border with Vietnam under Hok Lundy and most recently in Kep and Kampot under the guise of religion and assisted by tycoon Sok Kong who publicly stated he's proud to be Vietnamese.


It is superficially true that relative peace and stability occurred during the reign of Hun Sen's three decades in power. But Hun Sen's "achievements" are only relative to the blackness of the Khmer Rouge. Besides extinction (which first Vietnam stemmed and the international community resuscitated), Cambodia could not have fallen any lower in the scale of misery.


Currently, Cambodians are not masters of their own home or future; they are slaves, servants and coolies who do the bidding of the wealthy, be they the Cambodian elites or the foreign guests. Cambodians are not agents of their lives and future; they lack agency. Hun Sen is responsible for this dire state of affairs.


Over the past three decades of rule, Hun Sen has destroyed the natural resources and tendered away heritage and cultural rights to non Cambodians and those detrimental to the prosperity and sovereignty of Cambodia. The economic growth resulted from international assistance and the one-off in the selling of natural resources. Once gone, they're gone.


Hun Sen's 30 years in power reflects his autocratic rule of aggression and violence. Examples abound over the years of his anti-democratic iron-fist rule where any opposition to his rule is violently crushed.


Hun Sen's 30 years in power put him in the rarefied Club of Moldy Autocrats. However, globalization and the democratic surge of young Cambodians of the last election may have dulled the glow of infamy for these anachronistic megalomaniacs.



. . .

 

HRRC Board meeting and Launch of Keeping the Faith Report

Jakarta, 9-13 Jan. 2015


The dynamic deputy director Michelle Staggs Kelsall with the report's lead author Dr. Jaclyn Neo.

 

 

 

. . .





My new US passport!

 

 

Shiny and new!


Passport of freedom, security, opportunity -- I love my US passport and being American-Cambodian.


As American citizens, we often take it for granted the power and value of this little booklet. But once in awhile I do get to experience the FORCE and GRAVITAS of the SUPERPOWER of the U.S. of A.!


No wonder this Kingdoom of Wonder has adamantly, successfully demanded that the new members of the reformed, Constitutionally-mandated National Election Committee cannot be other than Khmer nationality. A drastic deviation from what the Constitution allows and the current reality where the King, Minister of Commerce, many Members of National Assembly and Senate of CNRP, CPP, and Funcinpec, chair of powerful investment body CDC etc. hold dual nationality.


This law prohibiting new NEC members from holding another nationality besides Khmer is not only unconstitutional but serves as a potential barrier to known candidate (Kek Galabru) and possible candidates (e.g. CNRP-North America and Europe nomination of me), threat and intimidation.


. . .

 

Taking it easy.

 

. . .

 

See you in the new year!

 

Now or never. Since contractually, it can't be never, it's NOW. Enough of reading and re-reading. It is time to WRITE! The books I'm taking with me as I hide for next 2 1/2 months to finish my writings. Yes, including a fake copy of my own memoir (to write and make notes in) published in London, 2005, the last time I had read the book.

 

What I will miss:


 

What I look forward to:


 

 

. . .

 

 

Theary's Curriculum Vitae / Resume


Click on image to view the complete CV

 

* * *

 


CNRP-NA nominates Ms. Theary Seng to NEC


July 23, 2014


The Honorable Sam Rainsy

President, Cambodia National Rescue Party Phnom Penh, Cambodia


Re: Nomination of Ms. Theary Seng as a CNRP Member to NEC


Dear Mr. President:


We, the leadership of the Cambodia National Rescue Party of North America (CNRP-NA), resoundingly nominate Ms. Theary C. Seng to be one of four CNRP members of the envisioned constitutionally-mandated National Election Committee.


We believe strongly in Ms. Seng’s character, educational credentials and work experience.


Ms. Seng’s character as a Khmer soul is undeniable: she is fearless, speaks truth to power and possesses unflinching courage.


Ms. Seng achieved educational credentials that stand among the elites of the world: the best private education in primary and secondary schools where as a refugee, she placed second in her high school graduation; the same elite university as President Bill Clinton of Georgetown University where she earned her 4-year degree in international politics; she received her law doctorate (Juris Doctor) after 3 years at the University of Michigan Law School, ranked number 3 when she attended. To top it all, Ms. Seng became the first Cambodian descent to pass the most difficult New York Exam which qualifies her to practice law anywhere in the world.


Ms. Seng’s work experience expands Cambodian and international soil (particularly American), with deep experiences in both the private and public sectors. In particular, Ms. Seng’s experience in Cambodia runs deep, having worked in her homeland since 1995 as a volunteer, a human rights advocate, an IRI electoral consultant for the first commune elections, a commercial lawyer and NGO leader. In 2008, NDI invited her to be an international election monitor in Bangladesh. She sits on two regional boards, one as Chair, the other as Trustee, speaks regularly at international forums, and writes copiously on Cambodian affairs, particularly commentaries on election-related matters.


We, the CNRP-NA leadership and the larger Cambodian-American community, celebrate Ms. Seng’s achievements and thus strongly support her nomination to the reformed NEC with great enthusiasm and pride.


Ms. Theary C. Seng would make a strong CNRP member of the reformed NEC.


Sincerely,

Kimly Chea President, CNRP-NA


cc: LAP Kem Sokha

CNRP Cabinet

 

* * *

 

 

CNRP Women's Movement Support Nomination of Theary C. Seng to NEC

 

 

* * *

 

Cambodian-Americans Support Nomination of Ms. Theary C. Seng to NEC

 

 

* * *

 

September 1, 2014

H. E. Sam Rainsy

H. E. Kem Sokha

CNRP Headquarter, Phnom Penh

Kingdom of Cambodia


Dear LP Sam Rainsy & LAP Kem Sokha:


San Jose wishes to join CNRP-NA leadership in nominating Ms. Theary C. Seng to represent one of CNRP nominees to the reform mandated NEC.


Aside from her academic distinctions from prestigious western universities in the field of international laws and politics, Ms. Seng had served in executive roles with several human rights and civic based organizations.


The track record of her academic background and vast experience in civil society uniquely prepares her to be an effective, fair minded, and capable leader at an institution as critical to Cambodia as the NEC.


Thank you for your considerations.


Sincerely,


Phillip Lim

President, CNRP San Jose

 

 

* * *

 

Support from various CNRP-NA branch leaders in California.






 

 

* * *

 

CNRP of Europe's nomination of Theary Seng

On Sunday, 7 September 2014, about 20 representatives of CNRP-Europe met in Paris and nominated me to CNRP president Sam Rainsy for NEC membership.

 

 

 


. . .

 

 


My Skype LIVE interview from Cypress (California) with CNN Hong Kong Anna Coren re the ECCC verdict of Case 002/01 of FORCED TRANSFER. A 1-2 minute interview turned into an almost 20 minute conversation. Over the years, I've given countless interviews on the KR years and my own history during this time and most times I can recount without tears and much emotion. I thought I shed all the tears needed shedding for this past! I hardly ever cry over my own story these days... I guess I have underestimated the power of this milestone of a verdict as I got a bit emotional...

 

Click on image to watch the Skype video interview with Andrew Stevens

 



My interview this Monday morning with AP regional bureau chief Jerry Harmer (Phnom Penh, 28 July 2014) re the starting of Eccc the Clown (aka, KRT)'s case 002 part 2 in a couple of days.

 

. . .

 

 


Listening with the electric crowd in the tens of thousands to Sam Rainsy giving an impromptu rousing speech near the Council of Ministers (Phnom Penh, 19 July 2014).


It's deja vu! Exactly one year ago, Sam Rainsy returned from a forced 4-year exile to an electric crowd of half a million (!) who came out to greet him. Like last year, I was fortunate to see the emotional outpouring of support from Cambodians from the back of the truck carrying Sam Rainsy.


See photos of this amazing trip from the Airport to the CNRP HQ, 19 July 2014

 

 

 

Cambodian Unionists Mark Murder of Prominent Labor Leader

(AFP | 22 Jan. 2014)

 


 

Videos 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

Photos 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |

 

 


Prince Norodom Sirivudh, AICHR Commissioner Cheat Chealy, PIC Dr. Yan Van Deluxe, CIVICUS Cambodia Theary C. Seng

My presentation on the first day was on The Right to Vote

 


Interview for documentary film on the Cambodia garment industry (Phnom Penh, 3 Oct. 2013)


Giving an on-camera film interview on the Exit Strategy for Hun Sen commentary (Phnom Penh, 18 Sept. 2013)

 


BBC interview of Theary, here background filming (2nd day of mass protest, 16 Sept. 2013)

 


Theary Seng giving an on-camera interview on the political development in Cambodia. Theary: "The protest tomorrow is part of the creative tension that brings about genuine change. I really believe the CNRP won and Sam Rainsy will become the Prime Minister within this election cycle; we don't have to wait another 5 years."

 

 

Sam Rainsy Returns


to a Rapturous

 

Hero's Welcome

 

Photos: Theary C. Seng, 19 July 2013

More images taken by me from the truck carrying Sam Rainsy at my Facebook accounts and in KI-Media 1 | 2 | 3 | 4


Sam Rainsy flashing CNRP no. 7 in the back of the pick up truck carrying him from airport to Democracy Square (19 July 2013)


I'm at the back of the truck where Sam Rainsy is standing on a raised platform, supported by bodyguards and his CNRP officials. The security surrounding his truck were amazing in protecting the truck from being flanked by frenzied supporters all the way from airport to Democracy Square, over 10 kilometers.

MORE PHOTOS and narratives

 

Global Convening to End Mass Atrocities

Istanbul (16-21 June 2013)


Istanbul, Turkey's largest city at 15 to 17 million people, is magical, as exquisitely stunning as one can imagine it to be and more (!!). Also known as Constantinople, named after the Roman Emperor Constantine who converted to Christianity in 4th century, it has now only one percent Christian out of 55 Million population.



Theary's presentation, during exchange with participants

 

I'm presenting on 19 June 2013 "Reconciling Peace with Justice in Cambodia: the Limitations of Tribunals to Address Mass Crimes"

https://www.box.com/s/g9go7em1jyvuhvy8jbjj

 

 


Theary Seng near Taksim Square on Istiklal Blvd. in front of the graffitied French Consulate (around noon-ish after service at Union Church in the vicinity, 16 June 2013)

 

Click here to read narratives and see more photos, or go to Ms. Seng's Facebook accounts

 

. . .

 

 

Theary C. Seng and the Road Ahead in Cambodia

By Michelle Phipps-Evans

Asian Fortune News, 3 Feb. 2013


Theary C. Seng (Photo: Roland Neveu, Dec. 2009)


The name Theary Chan Seng generates a fervor approaching reverence in the Cambodian community here and abroad. She is the Cambodian-born, American-educated lawyer and civil rights activist who founded the Cambodian Center for Justice & Reconciliation. It is a major component of another organization she serves as founding president, CIVICUS: Center for Cambodian Civic Education. This nonprofit group is dedicated to promoting an enlightened and responsible citizenry committed to democratic principles. It is actively engaged in the practice of democracy and reconciliation in Cambodia and the larger, globalized world.

So who really is Seng, the person? She is a survivor of the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, and has spent almost two decades advocating for its victims, many of whom were orphaned, widowed, abused or molested—victims who were like Seng herself.


Read full article

In KI-Media

 

. . .


Obama, in Cambodia for a Meeting,

Sidesteps the Ghosts of History

 

International Herald Tribune (Peter Baker, November 20, 2012)


Theary Seng, president of the Association of Khmer Rouge Victims in Cambodia, said, “President Obama should have met with the human rights community and activists challenging the Hun Sen regime, and while then and there, offer a public apology to the Cambodian people for the illegal U.S. bombings, which took the lives of half a million Cambodians and created the conditions for the Khmer Rouge genocide.”

 

Click here to read this complete news analysis

 

. . .

 

Kissinger in Cambodia:

Protests Greet Obama's Visit

International Herald Tribune / New York Times


PHNOM PENH — Theary Seng was taking aim with precision and anger. The 41-year-old U.S.-trained lawyer and a regular on Cambodia’s crowded protest circuit was about to throw a dart at a poster of former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.


Kissinger is one of 13 politicians and senior Khmer Rouge leaders in a dart game created by Poetic Justice, a nongovernmental organization run by Theary Seng that highlights deficiencies of the special U.N.-backed tribunal judging the Khmer Rouge’s crimes. Each player gets five throws. A bull’s-eye is worth seven points. The highest score wins.


Last Sunday afternoon, Theary Seng and three members of her staff were playing on Phnom Penh’s riverfront opposite the storied Foreign Correspondents’ Club. On this occasion — the fourth time the game has been staged in public — the point was to draw attention to the narrow scope of the Khmer Rouge tribunal ahead of President Barack Obama’s visit for a summit meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.


Click here to read full article.

 

. . .

 


Interview by Mike McRoberts of TV3, New Zealand standing on what was formerly the capital's largest natural lake, place of violent forced evictions (Phnom Penh, 20 Nov. 2012). Theary: "The international community gives muscles to this dictatorial regime to repress its own people. Before the government represses with Cambodian riels; now it's empowered and given muscles with NZ dollars, US dollars, Euros..."


Watch the TV3 New Zealand broadcast

with Mike McRoberts (aired 21 Nov. 2012)

At ASEAN summit, trade overshadows human rights



In solidarity with courageous protestors of Boeung Kak Lake, here sitting on what was formerly the capital's largest natural lake, with Council of Ministers facing it, with Bopha's mom and son (Phnom Penh, 20 Nov. 2012)

 

. . .

 


Open Letter

to U.S. President Barack Obama

Published in The Phnom Penh Post, 20 November 2012

Read letter in KI-Media

 

. . .

 


CJOReillyGlobal: #Theary Seng being questioned by Police of her possessions ahead arrival of #Obama. If only they knew her rights. http://t.co/88lyV2C3 Nov 19, 2012, 10:23 UTCMs.

Theary Seng and some 30 security (plus more embedded in Wat Phnom Penh and Sunway Hotel)


Narrative of harassment and images of

Ms. Theary C. Seng's stand-off

with at least 30 big bulky, heavily armed security

in front of US Embassy Phnom Penh

(Tuesday, 19 Nov. 2012)

 


Theary Seng (reddish-orange blouse to right) and 30+ security next to US Embassy Phnom Penh, 19 Nov. 2012


. . .

 


Emotional Violence of Past Poetic Justice Dart Games

flared into Physical Assault on Ms. Theary C. Seng

and those around her

along the Riverfront, Sunday, 18 Nov. 2012



A plain-clothes Cambodian police officer, left, pushes away Theary Seng, center, an organizer who was about to stage a protest in Phnom Penh, Cambodia Sunday, Nov. 18, 2012. Cambodia broke up a protest organized by her Sunday that was meant to highlight the alleged oppression of Cambodia's people by political figures, including former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the late despot Pol Pot (AP Photo).


See more photos


See film of violence


See Opinion by Heng Soy on the vulgarity attempting to undermine Ms. Seng and the global attention on the Poetic Justice dart games



Theary Seng and Poetic Justice dart game (Photo: John Vink / Magnum Photos, 18 Nov. 2012)

 

. . .

 

Spirit of Humanity Forum

 

Reykjavik, Iceland

SESSION 3: CALLING

4.15 - 5.45 pm Led by Miriam Subirana, Foundation for a Culture of Peace

The session includes:

Theary C. Seng, Founder, Centre for Justice and Reconciliation, Cambodia



Theary Seng with Princess Martha Louise (only daughter of Norwegian King and Queen), a genuine "people's princess" full of warmth and personality (Reykjavik, 15 Sept. 2012)

 

. . .

 

 


"Take that, Kissinger!" Poetic Justice dart games filming for ABC News.

More at Association of Khmer Rouge Victims in Cambodia...

"Cambodia's Khmer Rouge Court 'Dying'

ABC News film, aired 16 Oct. 2012

 

. . .

 

Khmer Rouge defendant Ieng Thirith ruled unfit for Cambodian genocide trial due to dementia

The Washington Post, 13 Sept. 2012


Of course if she is seriously ill with Alzheimer’s, she should be released. There is no point in trying an incapacitated person,” said Theary Seng, a human rights advocate representing some victims who are allowed a role in the proceedings. “The point is the (tribunal) is so late in coming. The political foot-dragging and inertia has caused this travesty of justice.”

 

 

. . .


 

Poetic Justice

and Civil Party Withdrawal

in the News

Nov. 2011


Ex-leader: Khmer Rouge atrocities are 'fairy tale'

AP Newswire, 23 Nov. 2011


"I'm not surprised that Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan and Ieng Sary continue to deny their crimes as the charges against them of genocide, war crimes are very serious," said Theary Seng, a Cambodian lawyer and human rights activist who lost family members under their regime.


"Even if I am not surprised, I am however disgusted by their lack of remorse for the suffering they caused. They are delusional in their denial in light of the weight of evidence against them - the mounds of skulls and bones, the horrific testimonies from every survivor of cruelty, the magnitude and scope of evil unleashed by them across the whole of Cambodia."

 

. . .

 

"Khmer Rouge trial is failing Cambodian

victims of Pol Pot's regime"

Human Rights Watch Brad Adams' editorial

The Guardian, 26 Nov. 2011


. . .


"Justice Denied"

Douglas Gillison, Foreign Policy Magazine, 23 Nov. 2011


. . .


Deputy President of Victims Association, a Civil Party of the Orphans Class, Mr. CHEY Theara, Withdraws Civil Party Status, Denounces ECCC as Political Farce

_______________________

PRESS RELEASE

_______________________

 

Full statement in both Khmer and English in KI-Media.

Here, if ISP censors in Cambodia.

 

. . . . .

 

Khmer Rouge Trial Missing a Marquee Defendant

Wall Street Journal, 21 Nov. 2011

“The release of Ieng Thirith is only one reflection of how incredibly late these trials are coming into place,” said Theary Seng, founder of the Cambodian Center for Justice and Reconciliation and herself, too, a victim of the Khmer Rouge regime, having lost her parents and spent five months in prison. She has withdrawn from the tribunal process, and instead put her energy into organizing public games of darts featuring the faces of the Khmer Rouge leaders along Phnom Penh’s riverfront – a “way of release” following victims’ frustrations with the trial process, mixed with “dark humor,” she said.

 

Theary Seng BBC News filming, Nov. 2011

Watch the BBC News coverage

But the trial - a joint enterprise between the UN and Cambodia - has been heavily criticised. Theary Seng, whose parents were killed by the Khmer Rouge, said putting three people on trial for the deaths of 1.7 million simply wasn't enough. (BBC News, 21 Nov. 2011)


Poetic Justice German Filming, 18 Nov. 2011
Filming for German DW-Global with Bastian and Sarin, 18 Nov. 2011. More photos...


Filming by BBC with Guy DeLauney, 17 Nov. 2011. More photos...

Khmer Rouge Trial: Cambodia Awaits Answers

BBC News, 21 Nov. 2011

 

. . .


Crying for Justice

AFP, 21 Nov. 2011

Khmer Rouge survivor Theary Seng told AFP she was "frustrated beyond words" that only Khieu Samphan looked likely to shed light on what happened. "The people want to know who is behind the Khmer Rouge, we want to see and understand the larger picture and we're not going to get that," she said.


From Tragedy to Sham in Cambodia

Asia Times Online, 19 Nov. 2011

In KI-Media

Others have gone further, arguing that the time might be ripe for the UN to pull the plug on the controversy-plagued court altogether. Last week, Theary Seng, a Cambodian-American survivor of the Khmer Rouge regime and a prominent advocate for victims' rights, withdrew her status as a civil party to the court, describing the proceedings as a "complete sham".

She said the UN should threaten to withdraw after setting some clear conditions for its continued participation. By pressing ahead, Seng said, the world body runs the risk of rubber-stamping a flawed process and further embedding cynicism in the Cambodian population.

"I understand the unwieldiness of any large bureaucracy, but at the end of the day it comes down to personalities, and there have been extremely weak personalities," she said. "In this regard, the UN is complicit."

 

 

In the End, Loss of Faith in Tribunal: Former Complainant

Hello VOA Special with Theary Seng, 16 Nov. 2011


Khmer Rouge Victim Quits Tribunal Saying UN-backed Court is a Sham

DPA, 15 Nov. 2011

 

Prominent Victims' Advocate Quits Khmer Rouge Tribunal

VOA International/English, 15 Nov. 2011


KRT Critic Offers 'Poetic Justice'

The Phnom Penh Post, 16 Nov. 2011


Theary Seng Denounces Tribunal; Introduces Dartboard Scheme

The Cambodia Daily, 16 Nov. 2011

 


Theary Seng's Press Conference, 15 Nov. 2011
More photos from Poetic Justice/ECCC Withdrawal Press Conference, 15 Nov. 2011



Poetic Justice
Front pages of The Cambodia Daily and The Phnom Penh Post, 16 Nov. 2011

 

. . .



Click here to read the full press release...


 

More information at "ECCC Civil Party"

More information at Association of Khmer Rouge Victims in Cambodia

In KI-Media



Theary Seng Criticizes KRT

as "Political Farce"

The Phnom Penh Post, 10 Nov. 2011

 


Radio Free Asia (both AM and PM broadcasts on 10 Nov. 2011)

 


Cambodian-American Lawyer Withdraws her Civil Party Status

Voice of America Khmer Service, 10 Nov. 2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* * * * * *

 


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Entrapment; Prince Sirivudh

Entrapment   Theary C. Seng, 4 December 2017                     Prayers for a speedy recovery for HRH Norodom Sirivudh                             Previous BLOG | All Past BLOGs | All RAND [ ... ]


A Language in Crisis: Punctuation is the Key to Development: Commas, Word Spacing

    You're already appropriating
punctuation marks;
now use them properly     About 5-6 years ago, I started posting pages from some Khmer dictionaries where commas were used (even if very sparsely, sporadically), in particular the 7-page [ ... ]


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